The many uses of Lateral Flow Tests

by

Adam Johnston

A lateral flow test is an technique that is used to detect the presence or absence of a target molecule or substance. They provide fast and easy answers to determining whether a substance is present. One of the most familiar everyday applications of lateral flow tests in the wider world is the home pregnancy test.

The way a lateral flow test works is actually similar to chromatography in its most basic form. A porous material is used to transport any fluids suspected of containing the target substance past a series of reactants. If the fluid contains the suspected test compound, then a chemical reaction will occur. The test can then be quickly analysed by either the presence or absence of a colour change, or by using a separate reading device. The transport material, chemical indicators, and type of reading device can be specifically designed according to the environment and type of chemical compounds being tested.

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The main advantage of lateral flow tests is that they can give pretty rapid results. Their ability to detect substances quickly naturally makes them a very important part of modern medical diagnostics. They are also used frequently in testing food and water for biological or chemical contaminants that may be harmful if consumed by humans or animals.

Lateral flow tests can be employed in one of two ways quantitatively or qualitatively. A qualitative test is the perfect choice if all you need to know is whether a substance is present or not. These tests also happen to be the simplest to design and use. However, lateral flow tests are not limited to qualitative use only. By using detectors that emit light only at certain wavelengths, you open up the possibility of incorporating image processing that can correlate the signal strength or intensity with the concentration of the compound being tested. Thus, lateral flow tests can be combined with spectrometry techniques to provide quick, yet accurate analysis of analyte concentrations.

There are several different reasons that make lateral flow tests the best technology to utilise particularly where fast results ultimately mean better diagnostics and faster patient treatment. Lateral flow also lends itself well to tasks that need to be conducted many times over, consistently and accurately. An example of this is manufacturing processes where contaminant or concentration level tests are performed on a continual basis. Here, ready-prepared lateral flow tests clearly offer the best solution over traditional analytical methods.

Lateral flow offers solutions to many manufacturing and clinical problems, and tests can be custom-designed to meet almost any assay protocol or standard. They are also scalable, and can be used in many on-site applications from bedside diagnostics to larger scale, precision line manufacture. The flexibility of the tests allows them to be adapted to a number of situations, as well as perform tests rapidly and accurately.

These are the primary reasons for why

lateral flow tests

are often employed as the main analytical method in many different applications. For more information, visit the BBI Gold website.

Article Source:

The many uses of Lateral Flow Tests }

21
Jul

Steelers, Cardinals win championship games to advance to Super Bowl XLIII

   Posted by: P9L3wd   in Uncategorized

Monday, January 19, 2009

The Pittsburgh Steelers and the Arizona Cardinals have won their respective conference championship games to advance to Super Bowl XLIII, the championship game of the National Football League. The game is scheduled to take place on February 1 in Tampa Bay at Raymond James Stadium. The Steelers were the American Football Conference champion, defeating the Baltimore Ravens by a score of 23 to 14. Meanwhile, the Cardinals became the National Football Conference champions by defeating the Philadelphia Eagles 32 to 25.

  1 2 3 4 Total
Baltimore Ravens 0 7 0 7 14
Pittsburgh Steelers 6 7 3 0 23

Ravens quarterback Joe Flacco was the first rookie quarterback in the history of the NFL to help lead his team to two straight playoff victories, defeating the number 3 seeded Miami Dolphins to win the Wild Card round, and the number 1 seeded Tennessee Titans in the divisional round. They came in to the game against a number 2 seeded Steelers team that had already defeated them twice during the regular season. Early in the game the Steelers defense dominated the field, forcing him to only complete 3 out of 14 pass attempts and end the half with a lowly 9.8 quarterback rating and his team losing 13 to 7. By the beginning of the second half, snow was beginning to fall. Early in the third quarter, Flacco threw a 16 yard pass to wide receiver Derrick Mason, only to be sacked by safety Troy Polamalu for an 8-yard loss on the next play, forcing a punt for the Ravens. The Steelers were held on their next possession, forcing another punt. After the Ravens got the ball back, Flacco led the team down the field in what ended as a 58-yard touchdown drive to put the team up 16 to 14. However, near the end of the game, Flacco threw an errant pass intended for Mason that was intercepted by Polamalu and returned for a 40-yard defensive touchdown. This made the score 23 to 14, and essentially knocked the Ravens out of the game.

With 3:19 remaining in the game and the Ravens in possession of the ball for one last chance, a passing play was called. Flacco dropped back into a throwing position, and threw a short pass to running back Willis McGahee, who caught the ball and turned upfield. Going full speed up the field, Steelers safety Ryan Clark collided with McGahee, also running at full speed. The two made helmet-to-helmet-contact, knocking both players to the ground and knocking the ball out of the hands of McGahee. Ray Rice, another running back, commented “It was tough to watch. He’s like a brother to me.” Clark was helped off of the field by the Steelers medical staff, but McGahee remained down on the field with movement in only his legs and arms. He told team doctors that he had significant pain in his neck, and was taken off the field on a cart and taken to a nearby hospital. It is unknown how severe the injuries are at this time.

After the game, Ravens coach John Harbaugh said in a statement “I’m not going to sit here and say Joe played a certain way. Joe went out there and competed and battled and fought and tried to find a way to win the football game. So I certainly have no complaints about that.” Flacco completed only 17 out of 30 pass attempts for 141 yards passing. He was also sacked 3 times and threw 3 interceptions. “I’m not blaming it on any rookie-wall stuff. I don’t believe in any of that stuff,” said Flacco.

  1 2 3 4 Total
Philadelphia Eagles 3 3 13 6 25
Arizona Cardinals 7 17 0 0 32

In the NFC championship, the Arizona Cardinals had not made it to a Super Bowl in the past 60 years. They were matched up against the high-powered offense of the Philadelphia Eagles, who were the number 6 seed in the NFC. The Cardinals were the number 4 seed, defeating the number 5 seeded Atlanta Falcons on Wild Card weekend, and the number 2 seeded Carolina Panthers in the NFC Divisional playoff round. The Cardinals were led by quarterback Kurt Warner, who became the second quarterback in NFL history to lead two different teams to a Super Bowl, the other being the St. Louis Rams. During the first half, the Cardinals quickly took the lead. By halftime, their lead was extended to 18 points in what looked like an easy win for the team. However, in the third quarter, Eagles quarterback Donovan McNabb threw three touchdown passes, two of them being to tight end Brent Celek. After kicker David Akers missed an extra point attempt after the third touchdown pass, the score was 25 to 24 in favor of the Eagles. After the Cardinals received the ball, they drove up the field. With just under 3 minutes remaining in the game, Kurt Warner completed a game-winning touchdown pass to running back Tim Hightower, making the score 32 to 25,. and sealing the game for the Cardinals.

Kurt Warner completed 21 passes out of 28 pass attempts, for a total of 279 passing yards. Wide receiver Larry Fitzgerald caught three touchdown passes of 9, 62, and 1 yard, building on his record-breaking playoff performance of 23 catches, 419 yards, and 5 receiving touchdowns over 3 games. “It really set in when I saw the confetti. I always dreamed of being in the confetti. This is beyond my wildest dreams,” said Cardinals linebacker Bertrand Berry after the game. On the other side, Donovan McNabb remarked on not making it to the Super Bowl again. “You never want anything to end. It’s tough when you’re that close to making it to the Super Bowl,” he commented.

21
Jul

Queensland prisoners put to work manufacturing water tanks

   Posted by: P9L3wd   in Uncategorized

Monday, April 30, 2007

Prisoners in the Australian state of Queensland have been put to work manufacturing rainwater tanks to help meet a shortfall in supply.

The southeast corner of Queensland, which is currently undergoing one of its worst droughts on record, is experiencing a boom in the rainwater tank industry. Households, encouraged by subsidies introduced by the Beattie government, have enthusiastically begun installing rainwater tanks as well as other water-saving devices. These subsidies have led to a shortfall in supply however, with some households waiting months for tanks to be installed.

The new initiative, announced by Premier Peter Beattie as well as Corrective Services minister Judy Spence will see prisoners at Woodford Correctional Centre, Australia’s largest gaol, constructing tanks for AU$4 per day. Spence has pledged not to use the cheap labour to undercut existing tank suppliers. Beattie also pointed out that the programme would give prisoners constructing the tanks valuable work skills for when their sentences are completed. If the programme is successful, it may be extended to other gaols around the state.

The Beattie government has been increasingly criticised over recent months for its failure to handle the water crisis engulfing Southeast Queensland. Opponents accuse the Government of a lack of planning foresight with regards to water supply for the booming area, which includes state capital Brisbane, as well as other cities such as Ipswich, Toowoomba and Gold Coast.

21
Jul

Apple unveils iPhone 4, iOS 4 at Worldwide Developers Conference 2010

   Posted by: P9L3wd   in Uncategorized

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

Yesterday, at this year’s Apple Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC), company CEO Steve Jobs unveiled iPhone 4, along with the new iOS 4 operating system for Apple mobile devices.

The announcement was long-awaited but not a very big surprise. In April, the technology blog Gizmodo obtained a prototype of the new phone and published details of it online. While introducing iPhone 4, at the annual conference, Jobs started by hinting at the incident, saying, “Stop me if you’ve already seen this.”

The new iPhone was praised by Jobs as “the biggest leap we’ve taken since the original iPhone.” It is only 9.3 millimetres (0.37 inches) thick, making it “the thinnest smartphone on the planet”, a 24 percent reduction from Apple’s previous model, the iPhone 3GS. Structure-wise, iPhone 4 has a new stainless steel frame, which acts as an antenna, supposedly boosting its signal reception abilities and possibly reducing the amount of dropped calls. It also has a new screen, dubbed a “retina display,” which displays images at 326 pixels per inch. During the keynote, Jobs demoed the device’s new internal gyroscope as well. Even though it now uses Apple’s faster A4 processor (first used in its iPad tablet), iPhone 4 has a claimed seven hours of 3G talk time, up two hours from the 3GS.

In addition to its design features, Jobs showed off iPhone 4’s new video calling abilities. This feature is called FaceTime, and connects with other iPhone 4s via Wi-Fi. The phone has two cameras: one on the front for video chats, and one on the back for taking pictures and other videos. The rear camera has a resolution of five megapixels, is capable of recording high-definition video, and has an LED flash.

The iPhone 4 will use Apple’s latest mobile operating system, iOS 4. Formerly “iPhone OS,” iOS 4 was first introduced by Apple in April, and includes multitasking capabilities. Jobs called the new software “the most advanced mobile operating system in the world.” iOS will support Apple’s new mobile advertising service, iAd, which goes live on July 1.

iPhone 4 will be available on June 24 in the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Japan. It comes in two colors—black and white—and two storage capacities. The 16GB version is priced at US$199 and the 32GB version at US$299. The iPhone 3GS’s price will be reduced to US$99, and the iPhone 3G will be discontinued. iOS will be available as a free software update to users of compatible older Apple devices (including the 3GS) on June 21. In the U.S., iPhone 4 will only be available on AT&T‘s cellular network, despite calls for Apple to let the iPhone be used on other carriers, such as Verizon.

Competition-wise, the BlackBerry mobile device is still the most popular smartphone right now. Apple is also facing some serious competition from web giant Google’s Android operating system, as well as Palm‘s webOS. Earlier this year, Android phones managed to outsell iPhones. iPhone users, however, account for over half of those surfing the Internet on a mobile browser in the U.S. Jobs also noted that over five billion iOS applications, commonly called “apps,” have been purchased from Apple’s App Store. The App Store currently has around 225,000 different apps for sale.

21
Jul

Great English Antique Furniture.}

   Posted by: P9L3wd   in Outdoor Furniture

Great English Antique Furniture.

by

Dennis Wallis

The way you decorate and furnish you home is a reflection of your personal style and taste. For most people their home is their haven and therefore they should fill their home with furnishings that are meaningful and appealing to them. Some people enjoy rustic country furnishings while other prefer more modern art deco type furnishings and there are a certain few who are very much drawn to antique pieces.

Antiques have a certain character and charm about them and they convey certain classiness to any room. English antique furniture in particular has a sort of decadent and classic appeal to it and it is no wonder that they are in much demand. Regardless of what period the furniture is from, be it Victorian or 19th Century furniture, antique furnishings and decorations are sure to be the centre piece of any room. Having a key focal antique piece such as a William and Mary japanned bureau or a George III bookcase is sure to get you many compliments.

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From writing desk to chandeliers, English antique furniture can be classes as the ultimate buy for any house since every piece is rich with history and class. The detail and hand crafting that have gone in to producing these antique pieces are what adds value to them and you are not likely to get the same kind of craftsmanship in any modern furniture produced today. The unique pieces add to their appeal and unlike the mass-produced furnishings, you can get from most retailers you are assured that the antique furniture you get is one of a kind.

If you are shopping for English antique furniture, you should always make sure you go to a reputed antique dealer so that you are assured quality and authenticity of the product you buy. It is quite easy to replicate antiques and unfortunately, some dealers do sell replicas under the guise of then being authentic antiques therefore you should make sure that the dealer you go to guarantees authentic products. You should also decide on what period the antique you wish to buy should be from since different periods have different styles, designs and materials used in making the furniture.

English antique furniture is a great investment, as the value for some pieces of furniture will only increase as the years go by. Rare or novel pieces are more likely to be coveted by antique enthusiasts and chances are you will be able to get a very good price for it if we wish to sell it in the future.

Antiques are a great way to decorate your home with pieces that convey class and history while also being a smart investment of your money.

For more information on

English antique furniture

, please visit the following site,

ronaldphillipsantiques.com/

.

Article Source:

eArticlesOnline.com

}

20
Jul

Queensland prisoners put to work manufacturing water tanks

   Posted by: P9L3wd   in Uncategorized

Monday, April 30, 2007

Prisoners in the Australian state of Queensland have been put to work manufacturing rainwater tanks to help meet a shortfall in supply.

The southeast corner of Queensland, which is currently undergoing one of its worst droughts on record, is experiencing a boom in the rainwater tank industry. Households, encouraged by subsidies introduced by the Beattie government, have enthusiastically begun installing rainwater tanks as well as other water-saving devices. These subsidies have led to a shortfall in supply however, with some households waiting months for tanks to be installed.

The new initiative, announced by Premier Peter Beattie as well as Corrective Services minister Judy Spence will see prisoners at Woodford Correctional Centre, Australia’s largest gaol, constructing tanks for AU$4 per day. Spence has pledged not to use the cheap labour to undercut existing tank suppliers. Beattie also pointed out that the programme would give prisoners constructing the tanks valuable work skills for when their sentences are completed. If the programme is successful, it may be extended to other gaols around the state.

The Beattie government has been increasingly criticised over recent months for its failure to handle the water crisis engulfing Southeast Queensland. Opponents accuse the Government of a lack of planning foresight with regards to water supply for the booming area, which includes state capital Brisbane, as well as other cities such as Ipswich, Toowoomba and Gold Coast.

20
Jul

Steel major Arcelor ready to reconsider Mittal’s offer

   Posted by: P9L3wd   in Uncategorized

Monday, May 22, 2006

Luxembourg’s largest steel company Arcelor is ready to study Mittal Steel‘s improved takeover offer, the former said on Sunday, opening the door to possible talks with Indian steel magnate Laxminivas Mittal. Arcelor Chairman Joseph Kinsch told reporters after a meeting of Arcelor’s board that the company’s directors would be ready to examine the details of Mittal’s latest offer once it has been approved by the CSSF (Luxembourg’s financial regulatory body).

Until Sunday, Arcelor, the world’s second-largest steel company, had firmly rejected world-leader Mittal’s bid to take the former company over and form a global steel giant. The softening of Arcelor’s stance comes after Mittal Steel raised its hostile cash-and-equity bid by a third on Friday and dropped a key demand for family control over the combined entity.

Media reports had suggested that Arcelor was trying to find another company to rescue it from being taken over by Mittal Steel. Possible candidates included Russian tycoon Vladimir Lisin and Russia’s Magnitogorsk Iron & Steel Works (MMK). Mittal’s move on Friday came after the value of its initial offer fell more than 10 percent behind the market worth of Arcelor, as the latter announced a buyback of its own shares at above-market prices to ward off Mittal Steel.

Laxminivas Mittal, who has hinted that the bitter takeover battle might have a hint of racism involved in it, told the French newspaper La Tribune that he was sure that the attractive nature of his revised offer would enable him to obtain over 50% of the Arcelor shares. He added that he was of the opinion that the involvement of a Russian third party would not be in the best interests of Arcelor’s shareholders.

20
Jul

Teräsbetoni frontman J. Ahola on representing Finland at Eurovision 2008 & more

   Posted by: P9L3wd   in Uncategorized

Sunday, April 13, 2008

This article is a featured article. It is considered one of the best works of the Wikinews community. See Wikinews:Featured articles for more information.

Teräsbetoni means “steel-reinforced concrete”, and is also the name of a Finnish heavy metal band formed in 2002. Their music, which centres on an honourable warrior lifestyle or on metal itself, quickly became popular in 2003 on the Internet, resulting in a petition by fans being sent to several record labels demanding a recording deal. In late 2004 the band signed to Warner Music Finland, and the following year debut single Taivas lyö tulta rose to number one in the Finnish charts, and debut album Metallitotuus hit number two and went platinum, and has now sold about 47,000 copies.

The band, who sing exclusively in Finnish, have just released their third album, Myrskyntuoja. The lead single on this album is Missä miehet ratsastaa, which Teräsbetoni decided to enter in the Finnish selections for the 2008 edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, where it was selected to go on to the semi-final in Belgrade, Serbia as Finland’s representative this year. Although Finland has seen limited success in the contest, their only victory was with a comparable group. In 2006 hard rock band Lordi – whose monster costumes and pyrotechnic displays are famed – achieved a record 292 points in the final with Hard Rock Hallelujah.

Teräsbetoni’s frontman, vocalist and bass guitarist Jarkko Ahola’s fame extends beyond the band he heads. He also features in Finnish symphonic power metal cover supergroup Northern Kings, alongside Marco Hietala of Nightwish and Tarot, Tony Kakko of Sonata Arctica and Juha-Pekka Leppäluoto of Charon.

Wikinews was able to conduct an exclusive interview with Jarkko Ahola to discuss these various achievements. This interview is now published below for the first time.

Contents

  • 1 Interview
    • 1.1 On the early days
    • 1.2 On Eurovision
    • 1.3 The new album
    • 1.4 Northern Kings
    • 1.5 The future and final words
  • 2 Related news
  • 3 Sources
16
Jul

Turn Back Time With A Chemical Peel}

   Posted by: P9L3wd   in Skin Treatment

Find Out More About:

Submitted by: Lloyd Krieger

Regardless of how well you take care of your skin, it is still aging. The good news is that there are ways to help turn back the clock and slow the aging process of your skin. One of the most powerful ways of thwarting aging is through a chemical peel. Chemical peels are not only helpful for aging purposes, but can also be used to get rid of pre-cancerous growths on the skin.

How Chemical Peels Work

When a chemical peel is performed by a plastic surgeon, a chemical solution is administered to the skin. The chemicals used in the peel are often referred to as being exfoliating agents or wounding agents. The skin then needs time to absorb the ingredients of the chemical peel. Afterwards, the skin will begin to peel and will take with it many of the signs of aging that you see in the mirror every day. The length of time it will take for the skin to peel depends upon how deeply the chemical was able to penetrate in to the layers of the skin. It could be anywhere from two days up to 14 days.

The chemical peel will be successful in destroying portions of the skin in a controlled type of manner in order for new skin growth to take place. The results are not the same for every person, as no two peoples skin are in the exact same condition.

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Categories of Chemical Peels

There are three different categories of chemical peels. There are superficial peels, medium (or medium depth) peels, and deep (or deep depth) peels. What separates one from the other is the kind of chemical solution that is applied to the skin and how deeply it penetrates.

There are certain factors that play a role in how deep the chemical peel is. These include how much acid is contained in the peel, the quantity of coats that are applied to the skin, and what span of time is permitted before the acid in the chemical peel is neutralized. Deep depth peels yield the most dramatic results of the three types, but they also incur greater risks to the patient, as well as the potential for more pain and a longer recovery period.

Superficial Peels: These types of peels are the mildest and gentlest of the three and can effectively be used on all skin types. Superficial peels affect only the outermost layer of the skin, the epidermis. For this kind of chemical peel, the plastic surgeon will use liquid that is made up of a mild (diluted) acid. Most superficial peels are made up of alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA), salicylic acid and a low concentration of trichloroacetic acid (TCA).

Medium Peels: Medium chemical peels go deeper than superficial peels and bring about a second-degree burn to the skin. They penetrate through the epidermis and into the superficial part of the upper reticular dermis. The main ingredient for this type of chemical peel is trichloroacetic acid. Some surgeons may choose to do a medium depth peel in a series of stages and then use a different type of chemical agent that is then followed by TCA.

Deep Peels: Deep depth peels (as the name suggests) penetrate the deepest into the layers of the skin. This chemical peel goes through the epidermis to the mid reticular dermis. It brings about a second-degree burn that is more serious than the one that occurs with a medium chemical peel. These types of peels can only be done on the face. The chemical that is most commonly used for a deep peel is called phenol.

Deep peels are not recommended for individuals who have darker complexions, as they can serve to bleach the skin (a condition that is known as hypopigmentation). Some lighter skinned individuals may also experience hypopigmentation when they undergo a chemical peel.

Regardless of your age, you can literally turn back the hands (and cells) of time to reveal younger, glowing skin.

About the Author: Lloyd M. Krieger, MD is a

Beverly Hills plastic surgeon

, You can read more about such procedures as

Beverly Hills liposuction

.

Source:

isnare.com

Permanent Link:

isnare.com/?aid=396116&ca=Womens+Interest }

16
Jul

Austrian teenager mourns captor’s suicide

   Posted by: P9L3wd   in Uncategorized

Monday, August 28, 2006

An eighteen year old Austrian girl, who was held captive by a 44 year-old man in the basement of his house for eight years, said that she is mourning his suicide, which he committed after she escaped from him.

Natascha Kampusch, abducted on her way to school eight years ago, had been “part of [her captor’s] life.” Police and investigators, unable to find a single lead or tip of her whereabouts, had all but given up hope of finding her alive and well until last week, when Natascha fled from her captor, Wolfgang Priklopil, a telecoms technician after he left her cleaning his car to answer the telephone. Natascha’s abductor, Wolfgang Priklopil, committed suicide hours after Natascha’s escape by throwing himself in front of a train only minutes after he realized her escape.

After hearing of Priklopil’s death, Kampusch wrote “..[Priklopil] was part of my life, that’s why in a certain way I’m mourning him”. Psychoanalysts believe Kampusch may be suffering from Stockholm Syndrome, a psychological condition in which captives begin to feel empathy, and even affection, for their captors. Psychoanalysts are well represented in Vienna as Sigmund Freud, the founder of Psychoanalysis was Viennese. After eight years with her captor, Kampusch is spending time receiving care from psychologists at a secret location, away from the media and her parents. Natasha spoke at first but later became more reticent and reluctant to answer questions. A psychiatrist feared a “delayed trauma”.

Kampusch’s parents expressed their frustration on not being allowed to have access to their daughter. Nevertheless, psychiatric staff with the girl have said that Kampusch needs time to re-adjust to life in the outside world. In a letter to her parents, Kampush stated that they would have “…all the time in the world…” once she had become re-accustomed to the outside. Psychologists claim she may lead a normal future life but probably will require years of psychological therapy. Ludwig Koch, her father said, “Natascha is very thin, has very, very white skin, and patches on her whole body. I don’t want to think where they come from.” She may be suppressing physical or sexual abuse. Early on she had to call her captor “master” or “lord”.